The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts.
Judaism as a Group Evolutionary Strategy: Toward an Evolutionary Theory of Anti-Semitism: SummaryReviewsOrdering information George Michael, a political scientist at the University of Virginia-Wise, has written an academic article summarizing my writing on Judaism. It also reviews some of the criticisms leveled at my work, and contains an interview with me.
Legitimate Scholarship or the Intellectualization of Anti-Semitism? Journal of Church and State, 48 4— Dialog between Joey Kurtzman of http: Is Kevin MacDonald Right?
Originally published in by Praeger Publishers. Chapter 1 develops the basic theoretical perspective of the book, including especially the idea of a group evolutionary strategy.
Group evolutionary strategies are proposed to be theoretically unconstrained on a variety of dimensions, and the remaining chapters flesh out the specific characteristics of Judaism as a group evolutionary strategy.
Group strategies are viewed as experiments in living which can be developed and maintained by purely cultural processes, although a later chapter discusses how variation in evolved systems may predispose individuals to form cohesive, genetically exclusive groups.
Of critical importance are within-group social controls and their rationalizing ideology which 1.
Chapter 2 discusses the evidence from modern studies on population genetic differences between Jews and gentiles. This material is relevant to the hypothesis that Judaism represents a group strategy which is fairly but not completely closed to penetration from gentile gene pools.
The data indicate that Jews have remained genetically distinct from the groups they have lived among despite having lived among them for centuries. In addition, Jewish populations in very diverse areas have significantly more genetic commonality than is the case between Jews and the gentile populations they have lived among for centuries.
This is illustrated in the following figure from Kobyliansky and Micle Jewish populations of the world: Genetic likeness and differences. Annals of Human Biology 9: Here is a recent New York Times article on Jewish population genetics.
The article is based on a study of genetic distance between Jewish and non-Jewish groups titled, "Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes," by M.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences May 9, This page includes a figure from the Hammer et al. Chapter 3 discusses some preliminary issues which are important for the general theory that Judaism constitutes an example of a religion that can be viewed as a group evolutionary strategy.
There is a pronounced tendency toward idealizing endogamy and condemning exogamy apparent in the writings of the Tanakh. The importance of consanguineous marriages and extended kinship relationships is also very apparent in these writings, especially for understanding the activities of the patriarchs.
It is shown that much of the ideology of Judaism as an evolutionary strategy for maintaining genetic and cultural segregation in a Diaspora context is apparent in the writings of Priestly stratum of the Tanakh.Essay Examples.
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