Tagalog - history and language.
Autonomous Intersentential CS cf. If displayed on a cline between intrasentential and intersentential code-switching, Phrasal Intrasentential CS and Autonomous Intersentential CS represent canonical examples of intrasentential and intersentential code-switching while Clausal Intrasentential CS and Integrated Intersentential CS constitute a transitional area between the canonical types of code-switching.
Figure 1 illustrates the types of English written code-switching in the German newsmagazine Der Spiegel on a cline from intrasentential to intersentential.
The ellipses to the left and to right end of the cline encompass the conceptual space for intrasentential and intersentential written code-switching.
The types of intrasentential code-switching are based on the shared features of syntactic obligatoriness and sentential embedding of the English code-switch in the German matrix clause.
Syntactic obligatoriness in the German matrix sentence becomes an optional feature if the code-switch consists of a grammatically incomplete English sentence, i. This feature also differentiates between the intrasentential types.
Intersentential code-switching, on the other hand, is defined by a lack of syntactic obligatoriness of the English code-switch in the German matrix clause and by the syntactic completeness of the English code-switch as a full sentence.
Finally, the space in the middle of the cline represents the transitional area between inter- and intrasentential code-switching. This space symbolizes the conceptual vicinity of Clausal Intrasentential CS and Integrated Intersentential CS, which are united by the syntactic completeness of the English code-switch and the sentential embedding of the English clause in the German matrix sentence.
Having analysed the different structural types of English written code-switching in the corpus, the questions arise what kind of textual functions these code-switches fulfil, and why they appear as such in German texts.
The remainder of the paper will investigate these questions and analyse the various types of written code-switching from intrasentential to intersentential figure 1.
Intrasentential Code-switching To commence with Phrasal Intrasentential CS, several English phrasal units function as complements in German copulative clauses. Besides 3further occurrences of code-switches as copulative complements are illustrated below: This structural parallelism could have alleviated their appearance in German.
However, equivalent morpheme order is not a prerequisite for the manifestation of code-switching as 14 shows. The examples above are couched in an Anglo-American context, which sets the atmospheric frame for the code-switches.
Examples 11 and 12 are quotations of English speakers.
While the translated parts constitute the structural core of the sentences subject and copulathe descriptive element in the complement appears in its original voice.
Apart from purveying the actual tone of the speaker, these code-switches also bear slightly ironic implications.
This is due to the markedness of a code-switch in its German textual environment. By encoding information in English, the author can signal the reader not to take the message at face value. In 12for example, the author switches to English to show how British politicians try to play down the effects of Mad Cow Disease.
The use of the English original voice allows the author to distance himself from the message and to add to the general undertone of the article, which suggests that the outbreak of Mad Cow Disease in Britain is, in fact, a serious matter.
Besides functioning as copulative complements, Phrasal Intrasentential CS occurs as appositions.Choose from different sets of ling linguistics flashcards on Quizlet.
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Language Planning. 6 reasons for code switching.
It could be transparently noted that, the syntactic variations of Spanish–English code-switched DPs differ in the varying sentence patterns, i.e., the language of the Det(erminers) and the language of the N(ouns), leading to different syntactic validity of CS.
The present study discusses the contact between English and Russian, which has given rise to widespread code switching among Russians. The paper looks . Developed the principles that a corpus of texts containing code-mixing should have and built a working prototype of Udmurt/Russian Code-Mixing Corpus.
Discussed different approaches to studying code-mixing and various classifications of code-mixing. To ensure safe switching, the switching hysteresis between the mechanical stop (e.g. plug in the seat) and the switching point of the limit switch must be larger than the displacement of the switching point caused by the temperature change.
The Morphological Analysis plugin integrates Russian and English morphology for java and lucene framework into elasticsearch. This plugin adds two new analyzers: “russian_morphology” and “english_morphology” and two token filters with the same names.
The heartoftexashop.com file shows a few examples .